I looked up K.T.Achaya who writes that “Kandhari hing is the commercially prized product, followed by Irani hing and Pathani hing.”
He says “the word hingu occurs in tje early Buddhist Mahavagga, while meat dishes flavored with the spice are mentioned in the Mahabharat. Only a trace of asafoetida is used in certain savory dishes in India.” He goes on to talk of certain types of hing imported into India in 1518 ( European account) and difference between hing and hingu being noted in 1680 by John Fryer.
Lizzie Collingham mentions in her book, Curry a Tale of Cooks znd Conquerors that
“the Persian and central Asian influence on Mughlai cuisine is evident in the Ain e Akbari recipes. They call for large quantities of saffron and asafoetida, favorite Persian flavorings and the Mughals cultivated these plants in India to provide their cooks with a ready supply. Hing became very popular with the Indian vegetarian population. When it is cooked in oil it took on a garlicky flavor that made a good substitute for onions and garlic, which were avoided by devout Hindus.”
Goes on to talk of its digestive properties for pulses and beans which are hard to digest.
“European visitors to Mughal India complained that the Indians ate too much hing that it made them smell odiously,” she adds.
I once climbed on to the top of Garodia mansion in which part of Khaari Baoli is situated and found
Dharmendra from Basti in UP was making hing which he said comes from Afghanistan.
I’m attaching photos.
Will look up Ain e akbari recipes using hing and post later.
The surprising thing is that Awadhi cuisine which is so heavily influenced by Persian cuisine doesn’t use hing or if it does I’ve never eaten it.
Rezvani an Iranian friend from Twitter whom I asked if he uses and he’s a great cook, says, “No, never! As far as I know, it’s a medicinal herb and used that way. In some regions they may be using it. Probably east and south. It makes the food smell like sewage. Our cuisine (north) has very little in common with southern or eastern cooking.”
The Gadodia mansion is adjoined to the Fatehpuri Mosque and it’s minarets can be seen -here is hing from Afghanistan